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TYPES OF EXPERTISE
Forensic document examination
Forensic document examination is used in order to determine the actual period for production of the document.This type of research is a rather popular because the forged documents – certificates, contracts, protocols, medical documentation, accounting documents – are often provided to courts.The expertise can identify the forgery of documents, based on the disagreement of a date specified in the document, and the period oftime when the document was actually created.
Forensic document analysisis a type of technical examination of documents.But it is implementedwith the help of physicochemical methods, as a result of which it is singled out as a separate type of research because of the peculiaritiesin the process of conducting the analysis.
It often happens that during the trial the parties provide documents that allegedly establish legal relationships of the parties at the moment of the transaction.Such documents can be fabricated directly in the course of the trial proceedings, after filing a lawsuit or referring a case to the court.Economic, civil and other contracts may be changed just after they are signed.This is especially important in cases of loss of the contract copyby one of the counterparties.For example, in case of loss of one of the spouses of its copy of the marriage contract, the other of the spouses may impose unfavorable conditions for the first.In order to establish the truth in such situations, aforensic document examinationis appointed.
The main directions of forensic document analysis
Expertise, conducted by comparing the samples: reliably created samples are takento determine the time of writing or printing documents.For instance, if an organization’s document with significant document circulation is submitted for expert examination, the samples of official papers, compiled at different times,need to beremoved and taken for comparison.This makes it possible to determine the level and the amount of changes and make a conclusion about the time that has elapsed since the creation of the disputed document. In case if all the samples do not coincide with adisputed document, the other methods of analyzing the document are used, or it is needed to create a conclusion about the impossibility of carrying out the investigation.
Expertise, conducted by comparing the disputed documentwith the collected materials archive of inscriptions, prints and printed textsis a modern way of document examination.The use of this method makes it possible to improve the accuracy of determining the date of creation or modification of the documents. However, the process of creating a reference samples databasemay take considerable time and consume a large amount of labor resources.This significantly increases the cost of the document study.
Subjects (materials) of the study while implementing the forensic document examination
The liquid and semi-liquid (viscous) materials, with the help of which a document is written or printed,are analyzedin the process of determining the timeof a document creation. For example:
ink composition of gel and ballpoint pens; ink for inkjet printers; ink for stamp pads (for making prints).It is impossible to establish the time of document creationif it does not contain organic solvents – texts of laser printers, materials for writing on a water basis.